• Ph.D. (2005)

    Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering

    Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

  • M.Sc. (1998)

    Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering

    Civil Engineering Faculty, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

  • B.Sc. (1996)

    Chemical Engineering

    Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

  • Application of Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment
  • Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes in Wastewater Treatment
  • Biological Industrial Wastewater Treatment
  • Polymer Application in Granulation
  • Research Area(s):

    Lab Assistant:



Dr. Bita Ayati is the Associate Professor in Environmental Engineering Division of the Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty at Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. She received her Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering from Tarbiat Modares University in 2005, M.Sc. in Environmental Engineering in 1998 and B.Sc. in Chemical Engineering in 1996, both from Sharif University of Technology in Tehran, Iran. Dr. Ayatis recent research interests include hard-biodegradable industrial and hazardous wastewater treatment especially using new methods including nano technology and advanced biological systems. She supervised 5 Ph.D. and more than 40 M.Sc. students. She is the author of the book entitled: Application of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in Sanitary Industrial Wastewater Treatment. She has published over 150 papers in national and international journals and conference proceedings. She has obtained 15 scientific award including Young Scientist Awards from Man and Biosphere (MAB), UNESCO in 2002.


Curriculum Vitae (CV)

Degradation of Emerging Amoxicillin Compound from Water Using the Electro-Fenton Process with an Aluminum Anode

Behnam Nayebi, Bita Ayati
Journal PaperWater Conservation Science and Engineering , Volume 6 , Issue 1, 2021 March , {Pages 45-54 }


The removal efficiency of the emerging antibiotic waste, amoxicillin, from aqueous media was investigated using the electro-Fenton method with an aluminum anode through the one-factor-at-a-time method, and all the experiments were performed in a useful volume of 750 ml. While the optimum conditions were achieved, the removal kinetic of the contaminant from the environment was investigated. Optimal values of the process parameters including the concentration of the contaminant, process time, initial pH of the samples, electrolyte concentration, electrode distance, and the applied current density were determined as 100 mg. l− 1, 90 min, neutral pH, 0.02 M Na 2 SO 4, 5.5 cm, and 5.5 mA. cm− 2, respectively. In order to find the optimum con

Novel baffled configuration of electro-coagulation-flotation process for treatment and fate of Direct Blue 71: Sludge characteristics and process optimization

MA Ahangarnokolaei, B Ayati, H Ganjidoust
Journal PaperEnvironmental Technology & Innovation , 2021 March 1, {Pages 101459 }


In this study, electro-coagulation-flotation process was investigated in the new baffled reactor to use the advantage of simultaneous flotation in an individual compartment to eliminate the need of separate chamber for flotation. The middle baffle led to the production of larger and denser flocs and consequently, settling velocity, sludge volume index, and floc density increased by 63%, 13%, and 14%, respectively. Effective parameters of electro-coagulation-flotation process in the proposed reactor were optimized due to treatment of Direct Blue 71. In the optimal condition ([dye]=200 mg/L, electrical conductivity=6.7 mS/cm, current density=3.54 mA/cm 2, and pH=8 in 60 min), the removal efficiency of dye, naphthalene ring, COD, and TOC, aver

Enhancement of the electro-activated persulfate process in dye removal using graphene oxide nanoparticle

Bita Ayati, Zeinab Ghorbani
Journal PaperWater Science and Technology , 2021 April 2, {Pages }


This study aimed to improve the speed of the electrochemical process by graphene oxide nanoparticle as a current accelerator in Acid Blue 25 removal from aqueous solutions. To do so, the effect of different parameters including pH, dye concentration, sodium persulfate concentration, the ratio of sodium persulfate to iron (II) sulfate concentration, current density, and the distance between electrodes was investigated on dye removal. Under optimal conditions of pH = 5, dye concentration = 200 mg/L, sodium persulfate concentration = 500 mg/L, iron (II) sulfate concentration = 100 mg/L, current density = 16.67 mA/cm2, and electrode distance = 2 cm, 95% of dye was removed after 60 minutes in the electro-activated persulfate process; wh

Remarkable phosphate removal from saline solution by using a novel trimetallic oxide nanocomposite

Mahsa Alimohammadi, Bita Ayati
Journal PaperJournal of Water Reuse and Desalination , 2021 March 31, {Pages }


Phosphate removal is an important measure to control eutrophication in aquatic environments, as it inhibits algal bloom. Salinity exists in these media along with high phosphate and currently available phosphate removal methods function poorly under this condition. In this study, the main objective is to fabricate a nanocomposite to improve and accelerate phosphate removal from saline solutions. To achieve this goal, Fe3O4/ZnO and a novel nanoadsorbent, Fe3O4/ZnO/CuO, were synthesized. Their characteristics were determined using FE-SEM, EDX, FT-IR, and XRD analyses, and their capability to adsorb phosphate from saline solutions was investigated and compared. The overall results suggest that the trimetallic oxide nanocomposite has a

Mass transfer phenomenon in baffled reactor using electro-peroxone process: Effects of electrode arrangement and flow rate

Mohamad Ghalebizade, Bita Ayati
Journal PaperJournal of Electroanalytical Chemistry , 2021 April 17, {Pages 115258 }


In this study, numerical simulation of hydrodynamic and dye concentration changes using a novel electro-peroxone process was performed using a new baffled reactor. The effects of three different electrode arrangements and three flow rates were investigated to optimize dye removal efficiency and mass transfer rate; and also to evaluate a fundamental relationship between the mass transfer coefficients and the reactor's characteristics. Based on the results, the electrodes' arrangement had a significant effect on the fluid's maximum velocity and increased it at the electrode surface by more than 50%. It was also observed that changing the electrodes' number and position from the first to the third arrangement (increasing the number of the elec

Investigating the effect of hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor in increasing the capability of slurry photocatalytic process in dye removal

Roxana Rahmati, Behnam Nayebi, Bita Ayati
Journal PaperWater Science and Technology , 2021 April 5, {Pages }


The hydrogen peroxide role in photocatalytic degradation of an anionic azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7), was investigated in a slurry reactor. Commercial ZnO nanoparticles with an average size between 10 to 30 nm were used as catalysts. Optimum conditions for different parameters, including dye concentration (10–100 mg/L), catalyst concentration (0.1–0.5 g/L), and pH (5–10), were determined first in the absence of H2O2. Changes in the COD were measured for the optimum condition. The impact of adding hydrogen peroxide at different concentrations to the system operating at optimum conditions was investigated. It was observed that 0.416 mM hydrogen peroxide increased the system's efficiency and decreased reaction time by 40 min. The

Simultaneous and sequential combination of electrocoagulation and ozonation by Al and Fe electrodes for DirectBlue71 treatment in a new reactor: Synergistic effect and kinetics …

MA Ahangarnokolaei, B Ayati, H Ganjidoust
Journal Paper , , {Pages }


Life cycle assessment of sequential and simultaneous combination of electrocoagulation and ozonation for textile wastewater treatment

MA Ahangarnokolaei, P Attarian, B Ayati, H Ganjidoust, L Rizzo
Journal Paper , , {Pages }


The thermodynamics, kinetics, and isotherms of sulfamethoxazole adsorption using magnetic activated carbon nanocomposite and its reusability potential

E Ghate, H Ganjidoust, B Ayati
Journal Paper , , {Pages }


Novel baffled configuration of electro-coagulation–flotation process for treatment and fate of Direct Blue 71: Sludge characteristics and process optimization

MA Ahangarnokolaei, B Ayati, H Ganjidoust
Journal Paper , , {Pages }


Treatment of petroleum wastewater using a sequential hybrid system of electro-Fenton and NZVI slurry reactors, future prospects for an emerging wastewater treatment technology

M Seyyedi, B Ayati
Journal Paper , , {Pages }


Optimization and Comparison of Single and Combined Processes Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation for Dye Removal

P Arbab, B Ayati, MR Ansari
Journal PaperJournal of Water and Wastewater , Volume 31 , Issue 2, 2020 January , {Pages }


The textile industry wastewater causes serious environmental problems due to its high toxicity and color. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective treatment technology for removing organic dyes from wastewater. Cavitation is one such modern technique which has been considered for the treatment of complex pollutants because of its ability to generate highly reactive free radicals. Up to now, researchers have mostly focused on qualitative interpretations and related scientific techniques, and there has been no quantitative cost analysis for pollutant control in textile industries for decision making purposes. Future studies need to focus on the cost analysis of more processes in textile wastewater treatment, such as advanced oxidation

Improving Fe-based heterogeneous Electro-Fenton nano catalyst using transition metals in a novel orbiting electrodes reactor

Amir Ahmadi Zahrani, Bita Ayati
Journal PaperChemosphere , 2020 May 14, {Pages 127049 }


In recent decades the electro-Fenton process has widely been utilized for removing recalcitrant compounds. However, this process is accompanied by several problems such as limited working pH range, production of significant amount of iron sludge, and incapability in reusing used iron ions. Hence, the heterogeneous electro-Fenton process is a convenient way to address these problems. One of the shortcomings of this method, in comparison with the homogeneous electro-Fenton process, is its lower reaction rate. In the first phase of this study, a heterogeneous Fe-based nanocatalyst was prepared. After optimizing the affecting parameters, three transition metals (M: Cu, Co and, Cr) were used in the second phase of the study to improve the perfor

Using heterogeneous Fe-ZSM-5 nanocatalyst to improve the electro Fenton process for acid blue 25 removal in a novel reactor with orbiting electrodes

Amir Ahmadi Zahrani, Bita Ayati
Journal PaperJournal of Electroanalytical Chemistry , Volume 873 , 2020 September 15, {Pages 114456 }


In this study, a modified electro Fenton system, a heterogeneous nanocatalyst Fe-ZSM-5, and an innovative reactor with orbiting graphite electrodes were used to remove the acid blue 25. Heterogeneous nanocatalysts are divided into natural and synthetic categories, which have advantages such as increasing the working pH range, reducing the leakage of transition metal into the solution, reducing the sludge volume, and reusability in several cycles. In this study, Fe-ZSM-5 nanocatalyst was synthesized by ZSM-5 nano zeolite, iron ion, using the wet impregnation method. After its characterization by XRD, FTIR, and FESEM analyses, the capability of the nanocatalyst in electro Fenton process for dye removal was investigated by the OFAT method. Und

Investigating electrode arrangement and anode role on dye removal efficiency of electro-peroxone as an environmental friendly technology

Mohamad Ghalebizade, Bita Ayati
Journal PaperSeparation and Purification Technology , Volume 251 , 2020 November 15, {Pages 117350 }


Electro-peroxone system is a novel environmental friendly technology which attracts so much attention. This process is based on reaction of hydrogen peroxide generated through electrochemical process with ozone to produce hydroxyl radicals. In this study effects of electrode arrangement, anode surface area and position compare to cathode electrodes were investigated for the first time on dye removal efficiency of electro-peroxone in a baffled reactor. Oxidation state was also used to investigate degradation of Acid Orange 7 by-products. According to the results, electrodes arrangement and increasing the ratio of the anode to cathode surface area improved the performance of the electro-peroxone process. However placing anode electrode before

Capability of new Biochar/ZnO/SnO2 nanocomposite with high ability in removal of acid orange 7 solution

Sajjad Ataee, Bita Ayati
Journal PaperModares Civil Engineering journal , Volume 20 , Issue 3, 2020 October 10, {Pages 27-43 }


The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of acid orange 7 from aqueous solution using a new triple nanocomposite biochar/ZnO/SnO 2. In this experimental study, weight percentages of ZnO, weight percentages of SnO 2, pH, dye concentration and nanocomposite dosage as effective parameters on removal of acid orange 7 using one factorial method were analyzed. The maximum dye removal efficiency of 96.92% obtained at optimum conditions, 20% weight ratio for ZnO, 5% weight ratio for SnO 2, pH= 7.1, 250 ppm dye concentration, 0.5 g/L nanocomposite dose after 60 minute. One of the highlights of the nanocomposite was its high power to remove dyes in a very short time. As after 2 minutes of testing, most of the dye (about 86%) was removed.

Petroleum wastewater treatment and optimization of effective parameters using electrocoagulation process

Mahdieh Keramati, Bita Ayati
Journal PaperModares Civil Engineering journal , Volume 18 , Issue 5, 2019 February 15, {Pages 177-187 }


Petroleum is the major source of energy and the activities related to the petroleum industry leading to high volumes of wastewater and emissions different pollutants to water systems. According to studies, world oil demand will increase to about 107 million barrels a day over the next two decades, and about 32 percent of global energy will be provided from Petroleum by 2030. Thus wastewater resulting from oil and refinery industry is increasingly rising and discharges into the environment, which is a serious threat to the world's water resources. A large amount of water is used to extract and to refine the petroleum in oil refineries, thus produce the large amounts of wastewater. The wastewaters containing various kinds of pollutants with d

Acid Orange 7 Treatment and Fate by Electro-Peroxone process Using Novel Electrode Arrangement

Mohamad Ghalebizade, Bita Ayati
Journal PaperChemosphere , 2019 July 3, {Pages }


Electro-peroxone is a novel advanced oxidation process that surpasses ozonation or peroxone because of its advantages. In this technology, combining ozone and hydrogen peroxide generated electrochemically leads to the production of hydroxyl radicals, which are the strongest oxidizing agents. In this study, a cylindrical reactor with a continuous circular flow using novel arrangements of electrodes was used to examine the effects of variant parameters on dye removal efficiency. Acid Orange 7 (C16H11N2NaO4S) served as an indicator pollutant. Based on overall energy consumption and energy consumption per dye removed weight, electro-peroxone not only has proper efficiency at high dye concentrations, it also has the least energy consumption per

Petroleum wastewater treatment using a combination of electrocoagulation and photocatalytic process with immobilized ZnO nanoparticles on concrete surface

Mahdieh Keramati, Bita Ayati
Journal PaperProcess Safety and Environmental Protection , Volume 126 , 2019 June 1, {Pages 356-365 }


A large quantity of water is used at oil refineries; Consequently, high amounts of wastewater are produced. The main aim of this study is to evaluate COD removal rate using an electrocoagulation process as well as a photocatalytic process with ZnO nanoparticles. Subsequently, the combined treatment was also implemented to reach energy savings and higher performance. At the optimum condition of the EC process (COD concentration of 900 m/L, current density of 20 mA/cm2, pH of 8.5 and NaCl concentration of 0.5 g/L), COD removal rate was 94% after 60 min. For the photocatalytic process at optimum conditions (COD concentration of 600 mg/L, ZnO concentration of 80 g/m2, pH of 5 and irradiation power of 32 W), 76% of COD removal effi

Ecological role of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus GSN3 in natural biofilm formation and its advantages in bioremediation

Sahar Irankhah, Ahya Abdi Ali, Megharaj Mallavarapu, Mohammad Reza Soudi, Suresh Subashchandrabose, Sara Gharavi, Bita Ayati
Journal PaperBiofouling , 2019 April 17, {Pages }


This study assessed the role of a new Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain, GSN3, with biofilm-forming and phenol-degrading abilities. Three biofilm reactors were spiked with activated sludge (R1), green fluorescent plasmid (GFP) tagged GSN3 (R2), and their combination (R3). More than 99% phenol removal was achieved during four weeks in R3 while this efficiency was reached after two and four further operational weeks in R2 and R1, respectively. Confocal scanning electron microscopy revealed that GSN3-gfp strains appeared mostly in the deeper layers of the biofilm in R3. After four weeks, almost 7.07? 10 7 more attached sludge cells were counted per carrier in R3 in comparison to R1. Additionally, the higher numbers of GSN3-gfp in R2 were unab

Current Teaching

  • MS.c.

    Industrial Wastewater Treatment

Teaching History

  • MS.c.

    Principles of Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering

  • 2019
    Saadati Sehrigh, Ali
    Improving ability of cellulose hydrogel coated on a mesh in oil/water separation in harsh environment (acidic, alkaline and salty)
  • 2019
    Safari, Amir
  • 2020
    Najafzadeh, Aliakbar
  • 2020
    Naseri, Samin
  • 2018
    Mirniyam, Fereshteh Alsadat
    Treatment of Colored Wastewater Using Photoelectrofenton Process Modified with Nanocomposites and Organic Acids in a Baffled Electrode Reactor
  • Best Researcher, Tarbiat Modares Univ., Tehran, I.R. Iran, 2010
  • Best University Professor, Tarbiat Modares Univ., Tehran, I.R. Iran, 2017
  • Best University Researcher, Tarbiat Modares Univ., Tehran, I.R. Iran, 2016
  • Better Thesis in Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, I.R. Iran, 2005
  • First Rank in Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering from Tarbiat Modares University, 2005
  • First Rank Ph.D. Student amongst all Ph.D. Students of I.R.Iran in the year of 2004-2005
  • Nominated Best Book, IRDA2012, Tehran, I.R. Iran, 2012
  • The 10th Annual Dr. Taghi Ebtekar Environmental Awards, Young Researcher, March 2015
  • Thematic Man and Biosphere (MAB) Young Scientist Awards on Ecosystem and Water, 2002, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
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